1. Leaving from Carum rural district Vechta from: Tegenkamp, Franz Josef: Carum Then and Now, Carum, 1991. Used with permission of the author.

2. Leaving from Oythe rural district Vechta, Homeland pages of the Homeland Federation of the Oldenburg Muensterland, Number 1 Volume 11, 1929.

3. Leaving from old Vechta according to the Emigrant Logbooks: Homeland Pages of the Homeland Fedration of the Oldenburg Muensterland Numbers 8 and 9 of Volume 23, 1941.

4. Leaving from Damme rural district Vechta "A History of the Emigration from the Old Damme Office (Oldenburg), in Particular to North America, During the Years 1830-1880" by Johannes Ostendorf, which appeared in: The Oldenburg Yearbook of the National Association for Local History and Geography, 1942-1943, pages 164-297. Link to the Homepage from Werner Honkomp, Oldenburg.  (German/English)